Wednesday, November 4


please ignore this post.

Factor Analysis and Trait Perspectives
- Latent variable= what is being measured
- Early Theories: Phrenology (bumps on the head), 4 body humours, Sheldon's body types (1940)
- Traits= relatively stable across time, States= fluctuates, and temporary, Types= cluster of traits; type A and B person.
- Interactionism- Personality x Situation Interaction; Lewin's Field Theory: B=f(P,E)

Trait Perspectives and the Big 5
- Openess to Experience: desire for artist expression; more arrests
- Conscientiousness: more likely to ban household smoking; responsive parenting, avoid unsafe sex
- Extraversion: Greater status in groups; firm handshake; less cooperative; more satisfied with life
- Aggreeableness: More emphatic parents; less revenge seeking, > control of (-)ve emotions
- Neuroticism: less satisfied w/ life; poor romantic rel; high anxiety and depression
- Office Space Study(Gosling et al., 2002) (can't predict aggreableness and neuroticism as well as the others)
- Bedroom Study was better at predicting.
- change physical environment to match our personality
- self directed identity claim (reinforce your self views), other directed (project an image to others), interior behavioral residue (cues to behaviour performed within the space), exterior behavioral residue(cues to behav. performed outside the space).
- Dog study (Gosling et al., 2003); many animals have emotions; Big 4- no conscientiousness, this is present in the chimpanzees w/c suggests later evolutionary change.

Social- Cognitive Approaches
- Rotters Model: locus of control;outcome expectancy and reinforcement values will lead to a specific behaviour.
- Bandura's model: Self efficacy; modelling; if you can pull it off youre more likely to do it.
- Bandura shows higher order thinking/learning like Morality, delayed gratification and self critical behaviour

Cultural Approaches
- Ethnocentric, racebased, Social edentity, acculturation, economic, longitudal (EMIC- specific to a culture, ETIC- cross cultural)
- stereotype threat
- vertical individualist: USA and AUS; hierarchical, unique, individuality, strive for being the best
- vertical collectivist: Japan and India; group harmony and report to higher ups
- Horizontal individualist: Sweden; strive for uniqueness and emphasise equality
- horizontal collectivist: merge identity w/ other people in the group; equality for everyone

Biological Approaches
- nature prepares us for nurture; no single trait X gene
- Temperament= stable over time; can be seen on children
- Eysenck's Model: Extroversion (low level baseline brain arousal; seek stimulation to 'power up'), Introversion (high baseline brain arousal; avoid stimulating environments)
- Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS)= high BIS, always alert; sensitive to punishment, worry.
- Behavioural Approach System (BAS)= high BAS, sensitivity to rewards, impulsive, overactive.
- More left activity- BAS while more Right activity- BIS
- Eugenics; survival of the fittest is misinterpreted; genocide in the name on Eugenics;

Personality and Health
- Type T Theory: if you can propely channel this negative energy (problems with emotion regulation) into something productive, then it's fine
- Diasthesis- Stress Model: exposure to the same STRESSORS may or may not result into a disease of disorder depending on a person's initial predisposition to a disease or disorder
- Good social relations are better than alot of friends
- Letting it all out and repressing it is BAD
- Human Termites (Lewis Terman)
- Stress buffering influences: Sense of coherence (the world is understandable and manageable), Sense of power, Commitment to something meaningful, Optimism

Neuroscience of Personality
- Brain lesiona - Phineas Gage
- Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
- Small sample size because it's costly and effects are fairly large already.
- Canli et al (2001) - Extroverts are finding this physiologically rewarding. Higher extraversion, brain rewards you more for the (+)ve stimuli.
- Antisocial Personality disorder- less neurons in the pre-frontal cortex (less gray matter). They don't have the hardware to effectively regulate emotions. (Raine et al., 2000)
- Raine et al., 1997- 41 Murderers and 41 controls; PET study. Lateral Prefrontal Cortex is involved in behavioural; responsible for inhibition; Medial Prefrontal C is involved in emotion regulation. Murderers have significantly less activation in these regions whereas normal people's brains are rev'd up when performing these executive functions.
- Aggressive Personality- associated with extreme violence.
- Direct (retaliation directly against the provocator) and
- Displaced (no direct retaliation-> ruminate-> instead attacks innocent targets [sausage dog]) Aggression
- Predicts things like spousal abuse and road rage
- MPFC: when we want to stop feeling bad this is the region responsible for it
- Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC): involved in social pain (eg. ostracism), physical pain, neural "alarm system" (activates executive parts of the brain)
- Denson et al., 2009: Anger induction: dACC is activated; sensitive to interpersonal slights; direct aggression, dAAC is activated but not much, MPFC is more active for them; emotion control; ruminating.
- the more dACC was activated the more angry people felt.
- the mPFC correlates with self-reported rumination.
- Rejection Sensitivity


Anonymous said...

Denson is the coolest.

Screwed for assessment.

xx roxy.

brooke. said...

Assessment can go die in a hole! this morning I woke up and realised that WE HAVE an ASSESSMENT book!!! screwed!
im reading through it now!