Monday, April 27

never before has a boy wanted more

.... Oliver! Oliver!

and this is how it began man's hunt for complexities and something new...

Skeletal System
Axial Skeleton
 The Skull
• Cranium
• Facial Skeleton
1. Frontal bone – front
2. Parietal bone – left & right
3. Temporal bone – squamous and ridged part
4. Occipital bone – Back
5. Sphenoid bone – inside and outside
External features of cranium
i. Foramen magnum – big hole for spinal cord
ii. Occipital condyles – articulates w/ 1st vertbrate
iii. External Acoustic meatus – hole for the ear
iv. Mastoid process – bone near cheekbone. Attach to mastoid muscle.
Floor of cranial cavity
a. Anterior cranial fossa – frontal bone fossa
b. Middle cranial fossa – holds the temporal lobes
c. Posterior cranial fossa – near occipital lobe, holds cerebellum
Facial Skeleton
1) Zygomatic bones – cheekbones (paired)
2) Maxillae – upper jaw (paired)
3) Nasal bones – hardest part of nose; around MIDDLE-TOP (paired)
4) Mandible – lower jaw.

 Vertebral column
I) Cervical vertebrae – neck (7)
II) Thoracic vertebrae – rib (12)
III) Lumbar vertebrae – back (5)
IV) Sacral vertebrae – fused to form SACRUM (5)
V) Coccygeal – loser 3 fused to form the coccyx
Characteristic of a vertebra
 Body – big mass
 Vertebral foramen (canal) – the hole when they are all piled up
 Pedicle – pointy things
 Lamina – flattened area
 Spinous process – the bumps on your back
 Tansverse process – the side bumps
 Superior & inferior articulating facets – joining the vertebraes together (superior of one vert, attaches to the inferior of the other)

 Thoracic cage
 TRUE RIBS – (1-7) attach to directly to sternum - own costal cartilage
 FALSE RIBS – (8-10) attach indirectly to sternum - shared costal cartilage
 FLOATING RIBS – (11-12) do not attach to the sternum, they ‘float’
Appendicular Skeleton
 Shoulder Girdle:
1) Clavicle –long slender bone @ base of neck. Articulates with sternum & scapula.
2) Scapula – flat triangular bone
a) Spine – long horizontal bump on the back.
b) Acromion – flattened process
c) Glenoid fossa – head of humerus articulates with this.
d) Coracoid process – hook-like structure (coracoid = means HOOK)

 Upper Limb:
3) Humerus
a) Head
b) Greater tubercle – big bump
c) Lesser tubercle – smaller bump next to grtr.tuber.
d) Shaft
e) Trochlear – dug out area (medial)
f) Capitulum – rounded process (lateral)
4) Radius – lateral bone of forearm (thumb side)
a) Head
b) Radial tuberosity – little point; muscle attaches and supernates the hand
c) Shaft – long bit
d) Styloid process – bump down near wrist.
5) Ulna- medial bone (pinky side)
a) Olecranon process – tip of elbow
b) Trochlear notch
c) Head – distal (near the hand- instead of the other way around)
6) Carpus – eight carpal bones
a) Pisiform
b) Scafoid – normally breaks
7) Metacarpals
a) 1 – articulates with thumb
b) 2 – index finger
c) 3 – middle finger
d) 4 – ring finger
e) 5 – the pinky
8) Phalanges (phalanx –one)
a) Digit 1= Thumb: two phalanges; a proximal and a distal phalanx
b) Dgits 2-5: the phalanges; a proximal, a middle and a distal phalanx.

 The Pelvic Girdle:
9) Pelvis (hip bone)
a) Ilium
b) Ischium
c) Pubis
10) Features of the HIP BONES:
a) Iliac crest and fossa (big concavity; flat area)
b) Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) – point you can feel
c) Obturator foramen – big hole (no use BUT to reduce bone mass)
d) Gluteal Surface – outside iliac fossa
e) Ischial tuberosity and spine – big lump at the back; you sit on these.
f) Greater sciatic notch
g) Acetabulum – forms a big socket for the head of the femur.

 Lower limb:
11) Femur
a) Head
b) Neck
c) Greater trochanter – big bump on top (lateral)
d) Lesser trochanter – smaller bump on top (inferior)
e) Shaft
f) Medial condyle
g) Lateral condyle
12) Patella- sesamoid bone; develops within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle
13) Tibia – weight bearing medial bone
a) Medial condyle
b) Lateral condyle
c) Tibial plateus – flat bit where condyles are
d) Tibial tuberosity – bump below the knee cap
e) Shaft
f) Medial malleolus
14) Fibula – slender lateral bone
a) Head
b) Shaft
c) Lateral malleolus
15) Tarsus – ankle (7 tarsal bones)
16) Metatarsals (5) – from medial to lateral [1=thumb and 5=little toe]
17) Phalanges – digit 1: big toe (2 phalanx – prox & dist), digits 2-5: three phalanges (prox, med, & dist)
The Articular System- ligaments & joints
1) Fibrous Joints
a. Coronal suture – frontal & parietal
b. Sagittal suture – b/n 2 parietal bones
c. Lamboid suture – parietal and occipital bones
2) Fibrocartilaginous joints
a. Intervertebral discs
i. Nucleus pulposus – changes shape when pressure is placed upon it
ii. Annulus fibrosus – resists excessive movement in most directions
3) Synovial joints
a. Capsule (ligaments)
b. Synovial membrane – lines the capsule. Produve a liquid, synovial fluid.
c. Articular cartilage – covering bones ends (the blue stuff)
d. Medial collateral ligament
e. Lateral collateral, &anterior & posterior oruciate ligament
i. Uniaxial joints – 1 axis only
1. Hinge (elbow, fingers, ankle) – flex & ext
2. Pivot (proximal radioulnar joint) – rotation
ii. Biaxial joints – movement around 2 axes
1. Condyloid (matecarpophalangeal joint – adb, add + flex, ext
iii. Multiaxial joints – many axes
1. Ball & Socket (shoulder and hip joint) – adb, add+ flex, ext + rotation
f. Shoulder joint
i. articular surfaces
ii. glenoid labrum – makes glenoid cavity deeper; from a fossa to a cavity.
iii. Capsule
iv. Coracoacromial arch – crocacoid process & acronium
1. Coracoacromial ligament
g. Ankle joint
i. Medial malleolus – inner ankle
ii. Lateral malleolus – outer ankle
iii. Talus
iv. Deltoid & lateral ligaments

Muscular System
Bones are covered in periosteum.
 Major muscles of Head and Neck
1) Muscles of mastication – movement of the mandible to bring the maxillary & mandibular teeth in contact. Attach to the mandible and the cranium. (supplied by the 5th CN, trigeminal nerve)
2) Facial muscles – aka. Muscles of facial expression. Indicate mood as well as opening and closing of the eye and mouth.
3) Sternocleidomastoid – origins: manubriums of sternum & medial clavicle, insertion: mastoid process. Oblique band at the side of neck.
4) Muscles of the orbit – contained w/n the orbit. Movement of eye w/n three axes

 Muscles of the Back
1) Superficial muscles – connected to shoulder girdle
2) Intermediate muscles – movements of the thoracic cage
3) Deep muscles – movements of the vertebral column. Aka. Postvertebral muscles.
a. Erector spinae muscle bends the vertebral column. Each side alone laterally bends the vertebral column & head; together they laterally extend the vertebral column.

 Muscles of the Anterior abdominal wall
A. External oblique muscle – most superficial. Fibres run inferomedially
B. Internal oblique muscle – intermediate layer, anteromedially
C. Transversus abdominis muscle – deep layer, horizontally in transverse plane.
D. Rectus abdominis (abs) divided into 4 sections. Covered by a thick wrapping “rectus sheath”

 Muscles of the Upper limb
• Upper limb to thoracic wall
I) Pectoralis major = origin: sternum & clavicle, insertion: proximal humerus.
II) Serratus Anterior = deepest of 4 muscles. Origin: ribs 1-8, insertion: scapula
o Upper limb to vertebral column
I) Trapezius muscle
II) Latissimus dorsi
o Scapula to humerus
I) Deltoid muscle
II) Rotator cuff group
 Subscapularis
 Supraspinatus
 Infraspinatus
 Teres minor muscles
o Arm (flexion- extension, pronation- supination)
I) Anterior compartments
 Biceps brachii muscle
 Brachialis muscle
II) Posterior compartments
 Triceps brachii
o Forearm
I) Anterior compartment (superficial – common flexor tendon)
 Pronator Teres muscle
 Flexor carpi radialis muscle
 Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle
 Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle
II) Posterior compartment
 Extensor digitorum muscle
 Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle
o Hand
I) Thenar - thumb
II) Hypothenar – other fingers

 Muscles of the lower limb : Gluteal region
• Gluteal muscle
 Gluteus maximus muscle – big one
 Gluteus medius – underneath maximus
 Gluteus minimus muscle – underneath medius
• Lateral rotator group
 Piriformis muscle (sciatic nerve emerges under this. Origin: sacrum. Insertion: proximal end of femur
 The Thigh
• Anterior group
 Quadriceps femoris muscle: attaches to the patellar ligament
 Rectus femoris muscle –hip knee joint
 Vastus medialis muscle
 Vastus intermedius muscle
 Vastus lateralis muscle
• Medial group (adductor group)
 Adductor longus muscle – thick-ish
 Adductor Brevis – under longus and pectonius
 Adductor magnus muscle – BIG ONE!
 Gracilis muscle – most MEDIAL
• Posterior group (hamstring muscles)
 Semitendonosus muscle (cordlike)
 Semimembranosus muscle (white-ish, flattened)
 Biceps femoris muscle (2 heads)


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